34 results found
- Developing Bio-fertilizers in Nepal
Since January 2019, Almost Heaven Farms, in a cooperative effort with Chris Evans of the Himalayan Permaculture Centre and Juanfran Lopez, has been supporting farmers across the Himalayan bioregion to transition to regenerative agriculture through the development and use of bio-fertilizers. Bio-fertilizers can be made using locally available materials, and increase the health of soil, and nutritional value and productivity of crops. This project focuses on four strategies to accomplish this goal: Research - Three mini production centres and research trials have been set up in the hills and lowlands of Nepal to measure the effectiveness of different bio-fertilizers on different crops grown at varying elevations providing sound scientific proof of the results of bio-fertilizers, which is soon to be published in a peer-reviewed paper. Education - Training programs and materials have been developed to educate farmers, government workers/officials and non-governmental organisation's staff on bio-fertilizers, their production and uses. A bio-fertilizer training manual is being developed in both English and Nepali languages. Production - Production units have been established across the country. 12 bio-fertilizers have been developed using local resources and are currently being trialed. Network - The Nepal Bio-fertilizer Network has been established to connect bio-fertilizer training participants from across Nepal and to share experiences and information related to this field. The network is made up of farmers, academics, governmental and non-governmental officials, both nationally and internationally, dedicated to the promotion of bio-fertilizers and efforts are being made to extend the network to include organizations, government bodies and the business community. Above: Juanfran Lopez delivers training on bio-fertilizers, soil science and plant health BACKGROUND According to the International Labour Organisation, agriculture provides livelihoods for 68% of Nepal's population, accounting for 34% of the GDP. Nevertheless, Nepal struggles to produce an adequate supply of food for its citizens and it is estimated that 36% of Nepali children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. Food security in Nepal depends on land productivity as managed by small land holders who face challenges in both productivity and sustainability. This project provides farmers across this bioregion with the knowledge, tools and local resources to make on-site bio-fertilizers, improve their soil and grow more nutritious food. Adaptation to climate change in the agricultural and allied sectors is a major current and future challenge for Nepal, particularly as Nepal is ranked 4th under the Climate Vulnerability Index. The majority of the population is still dependent on highly climate-sensitive agriculture. In recent years, long drought spells during the monsoon season, increased temperatures and unseasonal heavy rains during winter have caused serious distress to agriculture-dependent communities in many locations. Bio-fertilizers can improve food production in a way which is beneficial for the surrounding environment. A bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonise the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of nutrients to the host plant thereby restoring the soil's natural nutrient cycle. Through the use of bio-fertilizers, healthy plants can be grown, while enhancing the health of the soil. These drums contain fermented stinging nettle and weeping willow liquid bio-fertilizers. WHAT MAKES THIS REGENERATIVE? IMPACT ON PLANET - improved food production and security - carbon sequestered from the atmosphere and stored in the soil - increased biological diversity in soils - decreased soil erosion - improved water retention in the ground, particularly in higher regions of the Nepalese landscape - decreased production of greenhouse gases - less water pollution from agricultural run-off IMPACT ON PEOPLE - nutrient dense food - healthier rural environments - provides a buffer for farmers, to help protect their production from flooding, drought, pest and disease - increased knowledge of soil science and plant health for farmers - increased production and meaningful livelihoods - reduced costs and improved financial security - lowered levels of stress, depression and suicide COMBINED REGENERATIVE IMPACT Bio-fertilizers are a set of tools that, when combined with agro-ecological management practices, have the potential to empower farmers to regenerate soils and the ecologies around them. While focusing on soil health and growing a diversity of plants, we also start to draw down carbon from the atmosphere and sequester it into the ground. This improves the holding capacity of water in the soil, creates habitats for wildlife, grows more nutrient dense food and increases the value of crops that farmers are growing. The farmers start to see their farm as more than just a place to grow food, but also as a living ecosystem. Farmers become one of the most important segments of society with the potential to help restore the biosphere while also growing nutritious food, improving the health of the communities around them. Farmers from west Nepal collect local native microbes from their local jungle to propagate out and use as an inoculant for their soil. SCALABILITY While still in the preliminary stage of research and development, this project is putting in the foundations needed to scale up across the bioregion, including working with multiple key stakeholders to help develop local and national policy on regenerative agriculture. At the same time concurrent projects are being run across Africa by Seed and Knowledge Initiative (SKI) and Rural Community in Development Uganda (RUCID). The potential for scaling this project is significant. Bio-fertilizers and their inputs are based on the utilisation of local resources. In fact, the best microbes for improving farm production will come from the closest forest or local farm animals. The initial investment needed for starting up local bio-fertilizer production units is cheap and the process is easy. All that is needed is water drums, pipes and few other plumbing materials that can be sourced at any hardware store. REPLICABILITY This project directly applies the principle of valuing local knowledge and resources and implementing programs that are appropriate to communities across the Himalayan region. Several farmers and extension workers have already started to implement their own bio-fertilizer development and research in their working areas. Stories and findings are shared through our Bio-fertilizer Nepal Network hosted on Facebook. We are ready to help communities replicate this project as soon as it is safe to do so. Alisha Devi Magar, a young permaculturist representing the Magar tribe helps teach farmers about soil health and plant needs. WHAT’S NEXT FOR THIS PROJECT? Bio-fertilizers are currently being introduced into the agricultural policy of Suryodaya Municipality, Ilam, Nepal with the support of Almost Heaven Farms. Over the coming fiscal year, we will be training more than 100 farmers in these methods and introducing bio-fertilizers in 12 villages. Bio-fertilizers are continually being trialled in 3 villages on a range of different crops. This research is being shared with both local and international academics to document the results to be published in a peer-reviewed paper in the near future. CONTACT ALMOST HEAVEN FARMS Almost Heaven Farms is a permaculture demonstration, training, research and resource centre based out of Ilam, Nepal in the eastern hillside of the Himalayas. AHF supports farming communities transition to regenerative agriculture, restoring local soils, water sources and ecologies. Website | Facebook | Instagram | Youtube CONTACT US If you would like to know more about Bio-fertilizers, or join our network of regenerative practitioners, contact us here.
- Can Permaculture Play a Positive Role in International Development?
By Chris Evans. The word 'development' is like a double-edged sword. It can be a tool to cut your fodder needs, or it can cut your throat. It can mean improvement in quality of life, or it can herald a slide into deterioration of social, economic and environmental systems. Here, Chris Evans examines the history of the word development, and the part Permaculture has to play as a method of ensuring its positive side. Picture above: Remote upland villages like this one in Humla, Nepal are the last to get access to development as most organisations prefer easy access. The word 'development' is meaningless. It is what Wolfgang Sachs called an 'amoeba word', having no fixed boundary, yet within it can be all, or none. We cannot use current speech without using it, though it is a relatively recent addition to the common language. It was U.S. President Truman, in a Presidential address on January 20th 1949 who first split the world into two parts - the 'developed' and the 'under-developed'; the 'North', and 'South'. So the concept of development is a very young concept, while the 'underdeveloped' world is full of diverse, traditional cultures, evolved and adapted over centuries and holding the wisdom of generations. However, now these cultures have become defined by what they lack, and it is deficit which marks its boundaries. Similarly, the poorest part of the world is designated only one-third – the 'third world' – despite it having most of the population and biodiversity. I prefer to call it the two-thirds world; other names such as 'global South' and 'Majority World' are also used. Truman saw the world as a race on a track - some in front (Europe, U.S.A., etc.), some at the back (the two-thirds world) and some in the middle (the 'Eastern Block'). The speed of the race is measured by Gross National Product (GNP, also a new term, coined by Colin Clark in 1948). This is how the world became organised. Before this, there was no measure of poverty (though there was assuredly less), but there was rampant exploitation of natural resources and an effort to increase social standing through education and income. The imperative of the development race - an objective all governments strive for - is to catch up. A primary objective for the 'developed' world, to show an effective (not ethical) use of its profits, has been to pull all nations into the race, i.e. the world market. Secondly, it has been to train the new nations to be competent runners - how to run fast. To get on the racetrack, you need three things. Firstly, you need cash input. Secondly, you need input (import) of technology, and thirdly you need cultural change. All investment into development is towards these goals, and therefore old, traditional ways become an obstruction to development. Above: Women planting SRI rice, a radically new technique that take a few years’ commitment to embed in communities, but can double rice yields with no significant extra inputs, with less water and less seed. The Role of International Banks The training in how to run faster in the race is provided by those in front. This is rooted in the international banking syndicates - the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund etc., but also encompasses in the national scale, central government and the elite classes that run it. After this, everyone else are like lost sheep running whichever way they are herded. Governments are provided massive loans and grants in order to enter and run the race, for which they have to implement an 'economic structural re-adjustment programme'. This takes different forms, but some of the criteria for reform frequently include removal of barriers to free trade (thus countries with cheap or excess product can dump this into other countries' economies), cutting government spending (education, health, and other public services) and high emphasis on cash crops and consumer goods for export. The latter is to compensate for shortage of foreign currency, where economies must be restructured to perform 'more competitively' on the world market and to increase the nation's ability to service its debts to the international banks. This takes emphasis away from meeting basic needs and the whole vast 'informal economy', which is based on small farmers, especially women who play such a crucial part to produce food for local needs. Traditional systems of recycling wealth and non-money value systems are undervalued and consequently lost. Opening up to the international development community implies giving access to local markets for agribusiness corporations. Their saturation policy and government support pressurise traditional farms to adopt seed hybrids, monocultures and chemical fertilisers (leading to pesticides) in the place of local resources. There is a general pattern of less food grown for local consumption every year. Opening up to international markets as the only form of development is also inherently risky, though they can play a part to augment and diversify strong local economies. Now into the race, trying to keep pace and breathe, developing nations regularly fail to service the interest payments on debts accrued to finance capital intensive development projects. Thus, the traditional food base is further compromised by the need to produce goods for export. Again, emphasis is all the time taken away from local solutions to local problems, away from investing in local resources (skills, environment, technology) or building a strong local economy. Above: Netra Gurung, farmers’ leader in Surkhet, Nepal displaying what’s possible with good organic growing. Dissolving Traditional Cultures Development, therefore, is re-distributing knowledge with the rationale that traditional cultures are ignorant. It dissolves cultures not centred around the frenzy of accumulation and consumerism, and the level of 'civilisation' is measured merely by levels of production and consumption. Yet for the whole world to mine and consume the resources needed to acquire the current standards of Europe or the U.S., and to dump its waste afterwards, we would need six planets to look after our one. Hardly a realistic situation, and it is because of this that the development race can only fail, as it points in the wrong way, and runs into an abyss. Nowadays, 'First' and 'Third' Worlds are not so much separated by geographical area - there are elements of both on every land mass. Europe and Japan compete their race on Indian soil. Development is now not so much an issue of being exploited, as it was in colonial times, but one of being included or excluded. To be included, you need a car, a job, a bank account, etc. So what for the choices ahead? Maybe it is like choosing a bus ticket - one to a sustainable future where all needs can be met, or one which heads into the abyss. If you are already on the latter, there is nothing to do but to get off the bus, and find one going to a sustainable destination. We have to accept a finite nature in order to increase the possibility of dignity for more people. We need to create a society not dependent on exploiting. This is done by reducing our energy throughput (by up to 50%), and living gracefully with less energy needs, and a reduced economic growth. Thus traditional cultures become a positive resource, as it is they who have flourished for centuries using local resources, without their over-exploitation. Their indigenous knowledge is an untapped reservoir of ideas & solutions that already exist in farming and social systems that have maintained themselves, without money as a primary or priority means of exchange, for many years. By working with and respecting this traditional wisdom, as Permaculture designer and teacher Lea Harrison says, "We are not going back to a more primitive society, but forward to a more intelligent one." Above: A Permaculture Design workshop with the Himalayan Permaculture Centre. What and Who are we Developing? All this led me to explore the wider context of development: what is to be developed? For whom? By whom? For how long? And of course, how? The answers, of course, inevitably start with “it depends…”, as what we have realised over the past decades is that there is no one-size-fits-all answer or technique. Context is everything, and depends on many factors of what, why, where, who, when and for how long. Below are some fine examples of existing projects that provide clues as to the way forward. It’s also interesting to see the difference and similarities between humanitarian and regenerative development work. The former is about people and communities that have been forced to leave their homes because of human and/or naturally-induced disasters, and are needing to meet their needs (basic and otherwise) in artificial settlements. The latter, meanwhile, is about communities developing their own homes and settlements and is illustrated by the Himalayan Permaculture Centre’s mission to co-create abundant villages that people don’t need or want to leave, because they are meeting all their material and non-material needs locally. Both are about creating abundance and meaningful lives, but in very different contexts. Permaculture, with its time and site relevant design systems and careful energy accounting, is a synthesis of the principles of ecology and natural systems, traditional wisdom, and modern scientific knowledge and innovation. Design is used to create cultivated ecologies and communities, based on natural wealth and linked to cyclic economic systems that are self participatory and respectful of traditional societies. In fact, permaculture has already played a positive role in International development over several decades. In many countries, using the Permaculture principles of “Observe and Interact” and “Apply Self-Regulation and Accept Feedback”, these roles are becoming more common and more effective over time. Permatil in Timore-Leste have successfully integrated principles into over 1,300 schools, have been embedded in local government policy, and have created the fantastic Tropical Permaculture Guidebook. In Zimbabwe since 1988, the great Fambidzanai Permaculture Centre pioneered work that has been replicated throughout Southern Africa. In Malawi, Never Ending Food is a well-established implementer of best-practice ideas since 1997. These are great examples, not just of the techniques and approaches espoused to community groups, but in the very management of organisational planning, design, implementation, learning, monitoring and evaluation that goes to making effective and participatory development interventions. It is the learning from such initiatives that our team, including fellow Re-Alliance members, and I have created a 'Permaculture for Development Workers' course, looking at the common patterns of success that can be shared to make development more effective. Through this course, we work with development professionals to illustrate just how useful permaculture design has been, is being and can be. Finally, if solutions appropriate to current issues are to be developed, farmers must be considered experts in their own right, given the respect and value due, and their innovations taken seriously and included in the research and problem solving process. There are after all just two types of people: farmers, and those dependent on farmers. Chris Evans lives on and manages Applewood Permaculture Centre, aka Waterloo Farm, in North Herefordshire, UK, with his partner Looby Macnamara. He is also advisor to the Himalayan Permaculture Centre in Nepal where he has worked in permaculture development for over 30 years. Article first published in Permaculture Magazine, Autumn 2019.
- Regenerating Soil, Land and Food Systems in Kenya
Sustainable Village Resources (SVR) Kenya is a community based, non profit organisation, restoring lost livelihoods by creating natural, agro-ecological ecosystems. SVR is a perfect example of how a mutli-layered, socially driven permaculture project can have far reaching effects in community. From delivering Permaculture Design Courses to tree-planting initiatives, SVR’s multiple aims are to reach out to people overlooked, displaced or disenfranchised by mainstream social, financial and political variables and engage them in practical solutions to become self-sufficient and independent. Permaculture Teacher Caleb Omolo (right) with farmer receiving her Permaculture Design Certification (PDC). SVR has been running since 2012, reaching people in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, DCR, Uganda and Southern Sudan. The key aim is to improve food security in the region, including everyone in the community, regardless of age, gender or ability. Other goals are to restore biodiversity, increase productivity and strengthen community through the use of indigenous knowledge and agroecological systems. There is a focus on permaculture as a key to regenerating soil and land and providing good quality, organic food. Some of the key principles that SVR work by are to build from 100% local materials, harvesting water for irrigation, no dig methods, building soils naturally and using no chemical pesticide inputs. These methods allow people to replicate the systems cheaply and easily in their agroecological zone and with a focus on accessibility for the whole community. Indigenous knowledge is the first thing to be assessed, so that this can be built on to tailor the context of the education to groups. What makes this Regenerative? Impact on Planet The training provided by SVR champions food production through permaculture design. This includes the building of soils and humus, water harvesting and management, applying no dig principles, designing multi-layered growing spaces (2) and of course, obtaining a yield. Through designing food production with natural systems the impact on the planet is one of increasing biodiversity and a move away from reliance on synthetic chemical inputs. This has a positive impact on the land and local ecosystems. Impact on People This project particularly focuses on people care and the creation of a community of educators, growers and practitioners who are able to apply permaculture design for food security, environmental regeneration and social cohesion. A lower dependency on inputs such as herbicides, pesticides and growth enhancers means a lower financial output, a key area of focus for allowing farmers to improve their financial security whilst obtaining healthier and more natural produce. Organically, locally grown food also has a function in wellbeing, as people are able to trace where their food comes from, eating better quality and more abundant healthy food and feel a sense of ownership. Shared knowledge of permaculture also allows an increase in confidence and often better community relationships, which this project has been able to demonstrate. Knowledge and education are key areas of people care and SVR’s primary goal of integrating existing indigenous knowledge with permaculture design, allowing communities to put their own stamp on their particular projects. Regenerative Impact: whole-systems integration of people and planet, and improving qualities SVR has a regenerative impact in several ways. Firstly, their approach of establishing indigenous knowledge regenerates cultural and community based relationships within each area they operate. This allows each participant the opportunity to act as both educator and student, a mutually beneficial relationship with the programme leaders. Secondly, the reintroduction of organic and permaculture design principles allows the growing areas to regenerate, whether through soil quality, increased biodiversity or increased productivity. Water harvesting techniques are also powerful aspects of environmental management. This project seamlessly integrates people and planet, and SVR is actively involved in both the educational aspect as well as the physical implementation and building of the designs created during their PDC training. A great example of the application of this education is the Rongo shade grown coffee initiative. (3) Scalability & Replicability SVR has already proven it can work across scales, having reached communities in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, DCR, Uganda and Southern Sudan. The key principles of engaging the community, education and implementation are easily scalable to groups of many sizes. It is also a setup that can be replicated across many different communities. What's Next for SVR? Building on their successes, SVR has a network of permaculture practitioners throughout Kenya. They are now extending their work to Nairobi, and Kukuma in Northern Kenya where they are working with refugees. Additionally SVR are working within schools to educate children on permaculture, three in Kenya and one in Nairobi. Further Information Shade grown coffee provides habitat for animals including a fantastic foraging habitat for birds. In this system, the coffee is grown intercropped with trees. As well as providing a better ecosystem it also produces a better quality product, contributing to the needs of people and planet. Multi layered growing spaces are useful in permaculture design. They increase the space available for food production, create multi-layered systems that are closer to existing systems in nature, and they also provide microclimates, such as shade, moist or dry conditions or shelter from the wind. 350 former sugarcane farmers and 65 farmers who had former involvement in gold mining were able to grow coffee through polyculture design systems. These designs co-planted coffee with other species, such as trees, which increases the quality of the coffee grown and has improved yields of up to 5 times higher. The shade provided by the trees is a more traditional method of growing coffee, mimicking the conditions coffee favours naturally. The trees used for shade trees are often able to supply a yield themselves, such as fruit, giving the farmer a secondary income. Additionally, this set-up provides habitat for birds and plenty of other species. Each farmer involved in this project has been able to increase the amount of produce they grow and their income as a result.
- What is Regeneration? | Re-Alliance
WHAT IS REGENERATION? Scroll Down Building a small nursery at a Marawi re-settlement, facilitated by . Green ReLeaf What does regenerative mean? The term ‘regenerative’ describes processes that restore, renew or revitalise their own sources of energy and materials, ensuring the capacity to sustain and nurture all life. Regenerative approaches use whole-systems thinking to build equitable resilience that responds to the needs of society while respecting the integrity of nature. The term is increasingly being adopted in the mainstream, by organisations such as the , , and . In language promoting themes of regeneration, the United Nations General Assembly declared 2021 – 2030 the The Commonwealth Cloudburst Foundation Common Earth Consortium Lush Cosmetics UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. What is Regeneration? Re-Alliance Play Video Facebook Twitter Pinterest Tumblr Copy Link Link Copied
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- Case Study | Alam Santi's Water Harvesting Design | Re-Alliance
ALAM SANTI'S WATER HARVESTING DESIGN Scroll Down The planet's fresh water supplies are limited, climate change is adding to periods of intense rain and subsequent drought and the structure of the earth’s subsurface is easily damaged if the water table is not able to remain relatively consistent or to be replenished. The installation of deep wells contributes to the lowering of the water table, impacting on plants and animal life and contributing to the occurrence of landslides. The Alam Santi design team have been working with the UN, governments, businesses and local communities to design rainwater harvesting systems that can be used by everyone to help replenish natural fresh-water resources. BACKGROUND The team have worked out a system for both calculating the size of tank needed to store water, to remove debris and to filter the water itself, ready to store and deliver with a pump by demand. They recommend the use of traditional, corrugated steel cladding and a maximum roof length for optimal drainage. Their calculator for working out the size of the system needed per household or per building is easily adapted for different environments. Their design further specifies materials needed to build and install the system. Alam Santi’s work makes recommendations for devices to reduce water use by adapting shower and tap heads and by installing specially designed toilets that extract urine with separate flushes for faeces or urine. The latter allows for water with diluted urine to be reused in irrigation and to add additional nutrients to plants. Combined with simple technology (like perforated bamboo pipes inserted next to trees and plants to ensure water reaches their roots directly) and landscaping and storm drains designed to capture and use any water run-off, the planet’s limited freshwater supplies can be conserved and used most effectively. IMPACT ON PEOPLE Heightening public awareness of the water they use and the difference they are able to make Ensuring water is more equitably shared and available for all sections of the population Enabling people to reuse and recycle water in order to cultivate gardens and produce their own food IMPACT ON PLANET Prevents the desertification of land caused by lowering the water table through excessive drilling of wells Limits the landslides caused when the water table is unable to be replenished Provides irrigation (and urine fed irrigation) for plants and vegetables avoiding excessive use of pesticides or GM crops WHAT MAKES THIS REGENERATIVE? How can water harvesting deepen human relationships with natural systems? Water harvesting, at individual household, community, or state level brings together a range of techniques that contribute to the regeneration of the environment and prevents the degeneration caused by excessive human populations. Effective use of water and careful harvesting of rainfall show the close interaction between humans and their environment and illustrates how, when working together, communities and environments can thrive. It illustrates an approach to meeting the human need and right for clean water without depleting or stealing from the natural world. SCALABILITY & REPLICABILITY As a series of techniques that can be used at different levels and in different contexts, water harvesting can be introduced at any scale of human settlement. The drilling and digging of deep wells have for several decades been a core part of international development’s response to water scarcity in an attempt to reduce water borne disease and the daily trek to carry water experienced by many village populations. While good intentioned, these can add to the degeneration of an area and future livelihoods, in the attempt to alleviate human suffering in the short term. In contexts of disaster and displacement, shelter and water have to be provided in a hurry and is often trucked in with drinking water provided in bottles and wash facilities constructed rapidly. The existence of an integrated design approach, the construction of emergency buildings and facilities that allow for harvesting and recycling of grey water or diluted urine and the promotion of water harvesting habits will mean that such a settlement is viable in the longer term without unnecessary damage to the environment or health risk to the community. Such settlements can then include green spaces and vegetable gardens and become thriving places for humans and the natural world. CONTACT US Get in touch for links to Alam Santi, and our wider network of water harvesting and filtration practitioners.